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More misc files

pull/1/head
falkTX 7 years ago
parent
commit
61286788f9
17 changed files with 4220 additions and 0 deletions
  1. +3
    -0
      _kxstudio-kdev.kdev4
  2. +102
    -0
      _manual/create-manual-pages.py
  3. +295
    -0
      _manual/tmp_alsa_and_kxstudio
  4. +301
    -0
      _manual/tmp_cadence_introduction
  5. +225
    -0
      _manual/tmp_downloading_and_booting_kxstudio
  6. +293
    -0
      _manual/tmp_included_and_recommended_apps
  7. +315
    -0
      _manual/tmp_installing_kxstudio
  8. +256
    -0
      _manual/tmp_jack_configuration
  9. +266
    -0
      _manual/tmp_kxstudio_and_free_software
  10. +214
    -0
      _manual/tmp_kxstudio_introduction
  11. +281
    -0
      _manual/tmp_latency
  12. +216
    -0
      _manual/tmp_linux_audio_overview
  13. +317
    -0
      _manual/tmp_package_management
  14. +242
    -0
      _manual/tmp_simple_claudia_studio
  15. +390
    -0
      _manual/tmp_useful_links_and_getting_help
  16. +236
    -0
      _manual/tmp_video_drivers
  17. +268
    -0
      _manual/tmp_wineasio_and_reaper

+ 3
- 0
_kxstudio-kdev.kdev4 View File

@@ -0,0 +1,3 @@
[Project]
Manager=KDevGenericManager
Name=KXStudio

+ 102
- 0
_manual/create-manual-pages.py View File

@@ -0,0 +1,102 @@
#!/usr/bin/env python3

import os

manualPages = (
"kxstudio_introduction",
"kxstudio_and_free_software",
"downloading_and_booting_kxstudio",
"installing_kxstudio",
"package_management",
"video_drivers",
"included_and_recommended_apps",
"linux_audio_overview",
"alsa_and_kxstudio",
"cadence_introduction",
"jack_configuration",
"simple_claudia_studio",
"latency",
"wineasio_and_reaper",
"useful_links_and_getting_help"
)

for page in manualPages:
print(page)
tmppage = "tmp_%s" % page
webpage = "http://www.wiki.linuxmusicians.com/doku.php?id=%s" % page
#os.system("wget %s -O %s" % (webpage, tmppage))

tmppageFd = open(tmppage, "r")
tmppageRead = tmppageFd.read().strip()
tmppageFd.close()

# remove initial html code
readPart1 = tmppageRead.split("<!-- wikipage start -->", 1)[1].strip()
# remove TOC, if any
readPart2 = readPart1.split("<!-- TOC END -->", 1)[-1].strip()
# remove final html code
readPart3 = readPart2.split("<!-- wikipage stop -->", 1)[0].strip()

# remove first part of the page, we want the title
readPart4 = readPart3.split("<h1><a name=", 1)[1].strip()
# get the title
kxPageTitle = readPart4.split(">", 1)[1].split("</a>", 1)[0].strip()

# remove initial bits of html code (title)
readPart5 = readPart4.split("</h1>", 1)[1].strip()

# html cleanup
readPart6 = readPart5.replace("<h2><a name=", "<h2><span name=").replace("</a></h2>", "</span></h2>")
readPart7 = readPart6.replace("/lib/exe/", "http://www.wiki.linuxmusicians.com/lib/exe/")

# custom mods
readPart8 = readPart7.replace("http://www.wiki.linuxmusicians.com/lib/exe/detail.php?id=jack_configuration&amp;cache=cache&amp;media=cadence-jack-settings.png",
"http://kxstudio.sourceforge.net/screenshots/cadence-jacksettings2.png")
readPart8 = readPart8.replace("http://www.wiki.linuxmusicians.com/lib/exe/fetch.php?w=&amp;h=&amp;cache=cache&amp;media=cadence-jack-settings.png",
"http://kxstudio.sourceforge.net/screenshots/cadence-jacksettings2.png")

readPart8 = readPart8.replace("http://www.wiki.linuxmusicians.com/lib/exe/detail.php?id=cadence_introduction&amp;cache=cache&amp;media=cadence.png",
"http://kxstudio.sourceforge.net/screenshots/cadence1.png")
readPart8 = readPart8.replace("http://www.wiki.linuxmusicians.com/lib/exe/fetch.php?w=&amp;h=&amp;cache=cache&amp;media=cadence.png",
"http://kxstudio.sourceforge.net/screenshots/cadence1.png")

readPart8 = readPart8.replace("http://www.wiki.linuxmusicians.com/lib/exe/detail.php?id=simple_claudia_studio&amp;cache=cache&amp;media=claudia2.png",
"http://kxstudio.sourceforge.net/screenshots/claudia-qtractor.png")
readPart8 = readPart8.replace("http://www.wiki.linuxmusicians.com/lib/exe/fetch.php?w=&amp;h=&amp;cache=cache&amp;media=claudia2.png",
"http://kxstudio.sourceforge.net/screenshots/claudia-qtractor.png")

readPart8 = readPart8.replace("http://www.wiki.linuxmusicians.com/lib/exe/detail.php?id=alsa_and_kxstudio&amp;cache=cache&amp;media=kmixer.png",
"http://kxstudio.sourceforge.net/screenshots/kmix.png")
readPart8 = readPart8.replace("http://www.wiki.linuxmusicians.com/lib/exe/fetch.php?w=&amp;h=&amp;cache=cache&amp;media=kmixer.png",
"http://kxstudio.sourceforge.net/screenshots/kmix.png")

readPart8 = readPart8.replace(" The &#039;UAC3553B&#039; tab displays controls for a USB audio device whilst &#039;Playback Streams&#039; can be ignored unless you are using PulseAudio.",
"")

readPart8 = readPart8.replace("as &#039;Mic&#039; and &#039;Mic Boost&#039; do", "as &#039;Beep&#039; does")

readPart8 = readPart8.replace("<a href=\"/doku.php?id=", "<a href=\"<?php echo $ROOT; ?>/Documentation:Manual:")

kxPageContent = '<?php\n'
kxPageContent += '$PAGE_TITLE = "KXStudio";\n'
kxPageContent += '$PAGE_TYPE = "NONKXSTUDIO";\n'
kxPageContent += '$PAGE_SOURCE_1 = ARRAY("/Documentation", "/Documentation", "/Documentation:Manual:%s");\n' % page
kxPageContent += '$PAGE_SOURCE_2 = ARRAY("Documentation", "Manual", "%s");\n' % kxPageTitle
kxPageContent += 'include_once("includes/header.php");\n'
kxPageContent += '?>\n'
kxPageContent += '\n'

kxPageContent += readPart8
kxPageContent += '\n'

kxPageContent += '\n'
kxPageContent += '<p><br/></p>\n'
kxPageContent += '\n'

kxPageContent += '<?php\n'
kxPageContent += 'include_once("includes/footer.php");\n'
kxPageContent += '?>\n'

pageFd = open("Documentation:Manual:%s.php" % page, "w")
pageFd.write(kxPageContent)
pageFd.close()

+ 295
- 0
_manual/tmp_alsa_and_kxstudio View File

@@ -0,0 +1,295 @@
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
"http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en"
lang="en" dir="ltr">
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
<title>
alsa_and_kxstudio [LinuxMusicians Wiki]
</title>

<meta name="generator" content="DokuWiki Release 2008-05-05" />
<meta name="robots" content="index,follow" />
<meta name="date" content="2013-05-12T09:54:13-0400" />
<meta name="keywords" content="alsa_and_kxstudio" />
<link rel="search" type="application/opensearchdescription+xml" href="/lib/exe/opensearch.php" title="LinuxMusicians Wiki" />
<link rel="start" href="/" />
<link rel="contents" href="/doku.php?id=alsa_and_kxstudio&amp;do=index" title="Index" />
<link rel="alternate" type="application/rss+xml" title="Recent Changes" href="/feed.php" />
<link rel="alternate" type="application/rss+xml" title="Current Namespace" href="/feed.php?mode=list&amp;ns=" />
<link rel="alternate" type="text/html" title="Plain HTML" href="/doku.php?do=export_xhtml&amp;id=alsa_and_kxstudio" />
<link rel="alternate" type="text/plain" title="Wiki Markup" href="/doku.php?do=export_raw&amp;id=alsa_and_kxstudio" />
<link rel="stylesheet" media="all" type="text/css" href="/lib/exe/css.php?s=all&amp;t=default" />
<link rel="stylesheet" media="screen" type="text/css" href="/lib/exe/css.php?t=default" />
<link rel="stylesheet" media="print" type="text/css" href="/lib/exe/css.php?s=print&amp;t=default" />
<script type="text/javascript" charset="utf-8" src="/lib/exe/js.php?edit=0&amp;write=0" ></script>

<link rel="shortcut icon" href="/lib/tpl/default/images/favicon.ico" />

</head>

<body>
<div class="dokuwiki">
<div class="stylehead">

<div class="header">
<div class="pagename">
[[<a href="/doku.php?id=alsa_and_kxstudio&amp;do=backlink" title="Backlinks">alsa_and_kxstudio</a>]]
</div>
<div class="logo">
<a href="/doku.php" name="dokuwiki__top" id="dokuwiki__top" accesskey="h" title="[ALT+H]">LinuxMusicians Wiki</a> </div>

<div class="clearer"></div>
</div>

<div class="bar" id="bar__top">
<div class="bar-left" id="bar__topleft">
<form class="button btn_source" method="post" action="/doku.php"><div class="no"><input type="hidden" name="do" value="edit" /><input type="hidden" name="rev" value="" /><input type="hidden" name="id" value="alsa_and_kxstudio" /><input type="submit" value="Show pagesource" class="button" accesskey="v" title="Show pagesource [ALT+V]" /></div></form> <form class="button btn_revs" method="get" action="/doku.php"><div class="no"><input type="hidden" name="do" value="revisions" /><input type="hidden" name="id" value="alsa_and_kxstudio" /><input type="submit" value="Old revisions" class="button" accesskey="o" title="Old revisions [ALT+O]" /></div></form> </div>

<div class="bar-right" id="bar__topright">
<form class="button btn_recent" method="get" action="/doku.php"><div class="no"><input type="hidden" name="do" value="recent" /><input type="hidden" name="id" value="" /><input type="submit" value="Recent changes" class="button" accesskey="r" title="Recent changes [ALT+R]" /></div></form> <form action="/doku.php" accept-charset="utf-8" class="search" id="dw__search"><div class="no"><input type="hidden" name="do" value="search" /><input type="text" id="qsearch__in" accesskey="f" name="id" class="edit" title="[ALT+F]" /><input type="submit" value="Search" class="button" title="Search" /><div id="qsearch__out" class="ajax_qsearch JSpopup"></div></div></form>&nbsp;
</div>

<div class="clearer"></div>
</div>

<div class="breadcrumbs">
<span class="bchead">Trace:</span> <span class="bcsep">&raquo;</span> <span class="curid"><a href="/doku.php?id=alsa_and_kxstudio" class="breadcrumbs" title="alsa_and_kxstudio">alsa_and_kxstudio</a></span> </div>
</div>
<div class="page">
<!-- wikipage start -->
<!-- TOC START -->
<div class="toc">
<div class="tocheader toctoggle" id="toc__header">Table of Contents</div>
<div id="toc__inside">

<ul class="toc">
<li class="level1"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#alsa_and_kxstudio" class="toc">ALSA and KXStudio</a></span></div>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#kmix" class="toc">kmix</a></span></div></li>
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#cadence_and_alsa" class="toc">Cadence and ALSA</a></span></div></li>
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#non-jack_apps" class="toc">non-JACK apps</a></span></div></li>
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#useful_alsa_commands" class="toc">Useful ALSA commands</a></span></div></li></ul>
</li></ul>
</div>
</div>
<!-- TOC END -->



<h1><a name="alsa_and_kxstudio" id="alsa_and_kxstudio">ALSA and KXStudio</a></h1>
<div class="level1">

<p>

The Advanced Linux Sound Architecture is the primary sound system used by Linux. Even those who only plan to use JACK with the FFADO (FireWire) drivers should still have familiarity with ALSA.
</p>

</div>

<h2><a name="kmix" id="kmix">kmix</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

The main ALSA mixer included with KXStudio is called kmix. You can use kmix to adjust audio input and output levels, mute and unmute channels and change other non-FireWire audio device settings such as selecting between SPDIF and analog inputs if your device has such features. The kmix system tray icon looks like this:
</p>

<p>
<a href="/lib/exe/detail.php?id=alsa_and_kxstudio&amp;cache=cache&amp;media=kmix-tray.png" class="media" title="kmix-tray.png"><img src="/lib/exe/fetch.php?w=&amp;h=&amp;cache=cache&amp;media=kmix-tray.png" class="media" title="The kmix icon" alt="The kmix icon" /></a>
</p>

<p>
If you have a scrollwheel function on a mouse or trackpad, you can hover over the kmix tray icon and adjust the Master volume by moving the scrollwheel up and down. If you left-click on the kmix tray icon it will display a mini mixer. To see a full mixer with more controls, click the &#039;Mixer&#039; button within the mini mixer menu.
</p>

<p>
<a href="/lib/exe/detail.php?id=alsa_and_kxstudio&amp;cache=cache&amp;media=kmixer.png" class="media" title="kmixer.png"><img src="/lib/exe/fetch.php?w=&amp;h=&amp;cache=cache&amp;media=kmixer.png" class="media" title="kmix mixer" alt="kmix mixer" /></a>
</p>

<p>
Here we see the main kmix mixer window. kmix displays the controls for each ALSA device on its own separate tab. In this screenshot the &#039;HDA Intel&#039; onboard audio device is selected. The &#039;UAC3553B&#039; tab displays controls for a USB audio device whilst &#039;Playback Streams&#039; can be ignored unless you are using PulseAudio.
</p>

<p>
You will notice that each fader has a small speaker icon just below it. When these speaker icons display a small red cross on them, as &#039;Mic&#039; and &#039;Mic Boost&#039; do in the screenshot, that indicates the channel is currently muted. You can toggle muting simply by left-clicking on the speaker icons.
</p>

<p>
In the bottom right corner of the mixer window there is a tool icon. This icon allows you to configure which channels are available to control for the currently selected kmix device tab. You may find that some controls you need are missing at first, so you may add them via this Configure Channels window.
</p>

<p>
Whilst there is a standard defined for USB audio devices, relatively few devices fully comply with it. What this means for ALSA and USB devices is that sometimes you will see no controls under kmix for some USB devices or controls may not function as expected. Such issues may be worked around by inserting an app such as Non mixer or jack_mixer between an audio source and the problematic output device until the issue is fixed within ALSA.
</p>

</div>

<h2><a name="cadence_and_alsa" id="cadence_and_alsa">Cadence and ALSA</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

Cadence is primarily used to control and monitor the various Linux sound systems, including ALSA, under KXStudio. The main Cadence window has a &#039;JACK bridges&#039; section which contains two ALSA/JACK bridges - one for ALSA audio and one for MIDI. You will not hear audio produced by ALSA-only apps when JACK is running if the ALSA audio bridge is stopped. Likewise, you will be unable to access MIDI devices if the ALSA MIDI bridge isn&#039;t running when JACK is.
</p>

</div>

<h2><a name="non-jack_apps" id="non-jack_apps">non-JACK apps</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

As JACK increases in popularity, it is more widely supported. However, several apps are still ALSA-only. Such apps will have their audio channeled via the same ALSA to JACK bridge. These include:
</p>

<p>
<strong>Adobe Flash Player</strong> (as used by Firefox and other browsers for sites such as YouTube)
</p>

<p>
<strong>Many games and other various programs</strong>
</p>

<p>
Some other apps have only partial JACK support. These work with JACK directly, have their own JACK connections, and function without the ALSA to JACK bridge, but their connections are not persistent. They will temporarily connect to JACK while playing but drop their connection as soon as playback is stopped. Examples of these apps are:
</p>

<p>
<strong>Audacity</strong>
</p>

<p>
<strong>SMPlayer</strong>
</p>

<p>
<strong>VLC</strong>
</p>

<p>
Hence, none of these offer the individual audio routing functionality or other features offered by fully JACK-native software.
</p>

</div>

<h2><a name="useful_alsa_commands" id="useful_alsa_commands">Useful ALSA commands</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

The following commands can be useful for troubleshooting ALSA issues in a terminal:

</p>
<pre class="code">alsamixer</pre>

<p>

The original ALSA mixer

</p>
<pre class="code">cat /proc/asound/cards</pre>

<p>

Displays attached ALSA devices

</p>
<pre class="code">cat ~/.asoundrc</pre>

<p>

Displays your ALSA configuration file

</p>
<pre class="code">sudo alsactl store 0</pre>

<p>

Saves the current settings for ALSA device 0
</p>

</div>

<!-- wikipage stop -->
</div>

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<div class="doc">
alsa_and_kxstudio.txt &middot; Last modified: 2013/05/12 09:54 by danboid </div>
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+ 301
- 0
_manual/tmp_cadence_introduction View File

@@ -0,0 +1,301 @@
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cadence_introduction [LinuxMusicians Wiki]
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<li class="level1"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#cadence_introduction" class="toc">Cadence Introduction</a></span></div>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#system_information" class="toc">System Information</a></span></div></li>
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#system_status" class="toc">System Status</a></span></div></li>
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#system_checks" class="toc">System Checks</a></span></div></li>
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#jack_status" class="toc">JACK Status</a></span></div></li>
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#jack_controls" class="toc">JACK Controls</a></span></div></li>
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#jack_bridges" class="toc">JACK Bridges</a></span></div></li></ul>
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<h1><a name="cadence_introduction" id="cadence_introduction">Cadence Introduction</a></h1>
<div class="level1">

<p>

Cadence controls and monitors various Linux sound systems as well as audio-related system settings. Below is a screenshot of its main window and following that is an explanation of what it all means and how you use it.
</p>

<p>
<a href="/lib/exe/detail.php?id=cadence_introduction&amp;cache=cache&amp;media=cadence.png" class="media" title="cadence.png"><img src="/lib/exe/fetch.php?w=&amp;h=&amp;cache=cache&amp;media=cadence.png" class="media" alt="" /></a>
</p>

</div>

<h2><a name="system_information" id="system_information">System Information</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

This tells you the operating system, kernel version, and whether you are running a 32 or 64 bit <acronym title="Operating System">OS</acronym>. The kernel could be said to be the engine of Linux and KXStudio includes a low-latency kernel which has been optimized to get the best performance from JACK.
</p>

</div>

<h2><a name="system_status" id="system_status">System Status</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

This lets you select the CPU Scaling Governor, a property of the Linux kernel which controls the CPU speed. In &#039;performance&#039; mode, your CPU will run at full speed all the time. This mode consumes the most power but ensures the best performance and minimum CPU-related sound issues. In many cases (especially on battery powered devices) using &#039;ondemand&#039; makes more sense as this ups the CPU speed when its needed but clocks it back down when the computer is idle which helps save power. <em>Note: to enable this option in KXStudio 12.04.1, you must first install “indicator-cpufreq” but this will be included on install in 12.04.2.</em>
</p>

</div>

<h2><a name="system_checks" id="system_checks">System Checks</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

Current kernel is a verification that you&#039;re running a realtime or lowlatency kernel. This check will be ticked already if you installed from the KXStudio <acronym title="International Organization for Standardization">ISO</acronym> as it includes a low latency kernel. The other check verifies that your user is included in the audio group. Being a member of the audio group is required for your user to run JACK in realtime mode for optimal performance. You can add your user to the audio group by running:

</p>
<pre class="code">sudo adduser &lt;username&gt; audio</pre>

<p>

Replace &lt;username&gt; with your KXStudio user name when you run that command in a terminal. You will then need to log out and back in or reboot before your user will be recognised as being in the audio group.
</p>

</div>

<h2><a name="jack_status" id="jack_status">JACK Status</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

<strong>Server Status</strong> tells you if the JACK server is running or not. You cannot run any JACK-dependant software unless the JACK server is started beforehand.
</p>

<p>
<strong>Realtime</strong> tells you if JACK is running with realtime scheduling or not. Realtime scheduling allows JACK to take priority over other programs being run and hence improves performance of JACK applications.
</p>

<p>
<strong>DSP Load</strong> is the current CPU load estimated by JACK. If it gets too high you may experience performance issues.
</p>

<p>
<strong>Xruns</strong> For JACK to operate smoothly and without drop-outs it requires that its buffers (the memory used to transport audio) provide a continuous stream of data. Whenever this data fails to arrive in time to satisfy the requests of a JACK app it causes an xrun which is often accompanied by a disruption to the sound output. The key to success with JACK is to eliminate or avoid xruns.
</p>

<p>
<strong>Buffer</strong> size is measured in frames per second. It determines the latency between the audio being received by JACK and being sent to the output device. The smaller the buffer the lower the latency and, as a result, the higher the accuracy when monitoring audio for multitrack recording. 1024 is the default and is usually a safe value but smaller buffer sizes have less latency, i.e. less delay between the input and output. Try different settings to see how low you can go when recording without getting xruns. The functioning of lower size buffers depends on the power of your CPU and the specifics of your audio device. The lowest buffer most devices can handle well is 64.
</p>

<p>
<strong>Sample rate</strong> is the frequency JACK will run and record audio at. 44.1kHz is the CD audio standard, but 48kHz is more common to go with video or for other typical audio. Higher sample rates allow for higher quality but take more disk space. Even for professional purposes, 48kHz is usually fine as the default.
</p>

<p>
<strong>Latency</strong> is the JACK capture latency which measures the time taken to fill the audio capture buffer. This value is determined by the buffer, period size and samplerate settings used to start JACK.
</p>

</div>

<h2><a name="jack_controls" id="jack_controls">JACK Controls</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

<strong>Start</strong> Starts the JACK server, if its not running. This is the recommended way to start JACK.
</p>

<p>
<strong>Stop</strong> stops the JACK server. It is wise to save your work in any open JACK apps before stopping JACK, just to be safe.
</p>

<p>
<strong>Force restart</strong> should &#039;Start&#039; fail to start JACK, it is worth trying &#039;Force restart&#039; but you may lose the last changes made to the JACK settings.
</p>

<p>
<strong>Configure</strong> opens the JACK settings window, which is covered in the next chapter.
</p>

<p>
<strong>Switch Master</strong> tells JACK to apply any changes made in the JACK settings window.
</p>

<p>
<strong>Auto-start JACK or LADISH at login</strong> lets you pick if you&#039;d like to start JACK or a LADISH studio at boot. KXStudio includes an app called Claudia which lets you create virtual &#039;LADISH&#039; studios of interlinked audio applications. After creating such a studio within Claudia, you can use Cadence to configure your machine boot into a saved LADISH studio configuration. Starting a LADISH studio at boot also starts JACK using the settings defined within the studio.
</p>

</div>

<h2><a name="jack_bridges" id="jack_bridges">JACK Bridges</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

Cadences main window integrates the control of a few &#039;JACK bridges&#039; -services which enable alternate Linux sound systems to run seemlessly atop JACK.
</p>

<p>
The ALSA audio bridge enables one or more ALSA audio applications to access your JACK device when it is started. Most everybody will want to ensure this is kept running alongside JACK as it enables audio for non-JACK apps such as Firefox. If you have chosen for JACK to start at boot then the ALSA audio bridge also gets started automatically.
</p>

<p>
The ALSA MIDI bridge needs to be running if you want to use any MIDI hardware.
</p>

<p>
PulseAudio is not included by default with KXStudio, and so the PulseAudio bridge will not function without PulseAudio.. Most applications which use PA also use ALSA directly so there is then no need for PA or the bridge. If needed for some reason, you can use PA with JACK via the bridge if PulseAudio is installed first.

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<li class="level1"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#downloading_booting_and_running_kxstudio_live" class="toc">Downloading, booting and running KXStudio &#039;live&#039;</a></span></div>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#or_64_bit" class="toc">32 or 64 bit?</a></span></div></li>
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#dvd_or_usb_boot" class="toc">DVD or USB boot?</a></span></div></li>
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#booting_kxstudio" class="toc">Booting KXStudio</a></span></div></li></ul>
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<h1><a name="downloading_booting_and_running_kxstudio_live" id="downloading_booting_and_running_kxstudio_live">Downloading, booting and running KXStudio &#039;live&#039;</a></h1>
<div class="level1">

<p>

The easiest way to try KXStudio and discover if it supports your hardware is to boot it directly off a DVD or a USB drive. You can easily do this on any computer without any effect on the currently installed system. Doing this is referred to as running a &#039;live&#039; system.
</p>

</div>

<h2><a name="or_64_bit" id="or_64_bit">32 or 64 bit?</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

Download the KXStudio Live-DVD images from:
</p>

<p>
<a href="http://kxstudio.sourceforge.net/Downloads#LiveDVD" class="urlextern" title="http://kxstudio.sourceforge.net/Downloads#LiveDVD" rel="nofollow">http://kxstudio.sourceforge.net/Downloads#LiveDVD</a>
</p>

<p>
Note: the image files are .iso format (which is just the initials of the International Standards Organization which defined the format). These contain the complete KXStudio operating system as well as many applications.
</p>

<p>
You&#039;ll notice there are both 32 and 64-bit versions. Unless you are installing KXStudio to multiple, different machines you will only need one image file. If your machine allows for it, the 64-bit version is recommended as it usually works faster. Note that you can still run 32-bit software under a 64-bit installation but not the other way around.
</p>

<p>
With the exception of maybe a few (mainly Atom CPU-based) netbooks and tablets; most laptops, notebooks and desktops since the middle of the last decade will have a 64-bit capable CPU. One sure sign is if your machine is running a 64-bit version of Windows then you know you can run 64-bit KXStudio. If you&#039;re unsure, the easiest way to find out is just to try booting the 64-bit version. However, 64-bit machines can still use the 32-bit installation, so the 32-bit option is functional for all systems.
</p>

</div>

<h2><a name="dvd_or_usb_boot" id="dvd_or_usb_boot">DVD or USB boot?</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

If your machine has a DVD drive and you have a blank DVD to spare then the easiest way to boot KXStudio is to burn the .iso to a DVD. <a href="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/BurningIsoHowto" class="urlextern" title="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/BurningIsoHowto" rel="nofollow">Full instructions</a> are available for burning an iso file to a DVD under Windows, Mac, and GNU/Linux. Booting from a USB drive is faster than from DVD. Also, a USB drive can be set to save updates and work and function as a working system; but you won&#039;t experience the full speed and capacity of KXStudio until you install it to a hard drive.
</p>

<p>
If using USB, you will need a FAT32 formatted USB drive with at least 2 <acronym title="Gigabyte">GB</acronym> free space. You can then use the freely available <a href="http://unetbootin.sourceforge.net/" class="urlextern" title="http://unetbootin.sourceforge.net/" rel="nofollow">unetbootin</a> under Windows, OSX or Linux to transfer the iso file and make it boot from your USB drive. Using Unetbootin is as simple as selecting the &#039;Diskimage&#039; option, browsing to and selecting your downloaded KXStudio iso file, selecting the correct USB drive from the &#039;Drive&#039; drop-down menu and then clicking OK. After a few minutes wait you will be told when your USB drive is safe to be removed and ready to be booted.
</p>

</div>

<h2><a name="booting_kxstudio" id="booting_kxstudio">Booting KXStudio</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

Reboot your machine with the KXStudio DVD in the drive or with the unetbootin modified USB drive attached. In rare cases, your computer will automatically boot KXStudio. Typically, however, you will need to find out how to enter the boot menu on your machine or enter the BIOS or UEFI menu to change the boot order so that the DVD and/or USB drive takes higher boot priority than the hard drive. Commonly, pressing F12 right at start up will bring up the boot options; pressing F2 will bring up the full BIOS menu. In other cases, DELETE or ESCAPE are used. If none of these work, refer to the manual for your computer or search online for machine-specific instructions.
</p>

<p>
If you boot the DVD, you will first be prompted to choose the language to use. When this occurs, you can either do nothing and wait 30 seconds before the default of English is chosen and booting continues or you can use the arrow keys and ENTER to choose an alternate language. Booting off the USB via unetbootin does not bring up the language selection menu directly; instead you may change language settings under &#039;System Settings&#039;.

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<h1><a name="included_and_recommended_apps" id="included_and_recommended_apps">Included and recommended apps</a></h1>
<div class="level1">

<p>

Listed below are recommended audio, video and productivity apps for GNU/Linux complete with a short description.
</p>

<p>
Many of these apps are, or will be, included on the KXStudio DVD. Those not included are easily installed from the repositories in most cases.
<br/>

</p>
<ul>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Amarok</strong> Feature-packed music player with support for syncing with ipods (up to 4th gen)</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Ardour</strong> The original Linux DAW</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Audacious</strong> Uncomplicated music player with good JACK support</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Audacity</strong> Popular cross-platform sound editor but with poor JACK support</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Avidemux</strong> Simple video editing and conversion tool ala Virtualdub</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Blender 3D</strong> Powerful 3D modelling, animation, rendering and compositing</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Cadence</strong> Controls and monitors various Linux sound systems</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>cadence-jackmeter</strong> Cadence-JackMeter is a digital peak meter for JACK</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>cadence-xycontroller</strong> Cadence-XY Controller is a simple XY widget that sends and receives data from Jack MIDI</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Carla</strong> Audio plugin host (LADSPA, LV2, VST etc)</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Catia</strong> Catia is a JACK Patchbay, with some neat features like A2J bridge support and JACK Transport</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>cinepaint</strong> HDR, High bit-depth movie still editor</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Claudia</strong> Claudia is a LADISH frontend; it&#039;s just like Catia, but focused on session management through LADISH</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>darktable</strong> Virtual lighttable and darkroom</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>DeVeDe</strong> Creates DVD video and (S)VCD discs from movie files</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>DIN (Din Is Noise)</strong> Advanced fluid microtonal synthesis with drones and melodic effects, oriented toward Indian classical music</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Dolphin</strong> The default KDE file manager</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Firefox</strong> The original and best web browser</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>FileZilla</strong> (s)<acronym title="File Transfer Protocol">FTP</acronym> client (and server)</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>GIMP</strong> GNU Image Manipulation Program - Photoshop alternative</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>gnumeric</strong> A superior spreadsheet to the one included in LibreOffice or OpenOffice</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Guitarix</strong> JACK virtual guitar amplifier</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Handbrake</strong> Cross-platform DVD ripping and video transcoding</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Hydrogen</strong> JACK drum machine and sequencer, note: many additional drum-kits are available by installing the package “hydrogen-drumkits”</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>IDJC</strong> Internet DJ Console is for live, web radio production. Features voip integration</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Inkscape</strong> Leading open source vector graphics editor</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>JAmin</strong> JACK stereo audio mastering tool</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>k3b</strong> CD, DVD and BD burning</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Kdenlive</strong> KDE video editor, similar to Sony Vegas</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>ksnapshot</strong> Take screenshots of windows or desktops</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>LibreOffice</strong> <acronym title="Microsoft">MS</acronym> Office-compatible word processor, spreadsheet and presentation suite</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>LightWorks</strong> Professional, high-end video editor used in Hollywood productions (currently beta and 64-bit only)</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Lincoder</strong> Java/mencoder based batch video conversion tool</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Lingot</strong> Instrument tuner</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>LMMS</strong> FruityLoops-esque sequencer w/ integrated synths</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>mhwaveedit</strong> Lightweight sound editor with good JACK support</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Mixxx</strong> DJ mixing software</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>MusE</strong> DAW with good MIDI editing features and some integrated plugins</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Musescore</strong> Professional quality music notation and scoring</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Mypaint</strong> Bitmap paint program that can simulate real painting techniques</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Okular</strong> <acronym title="Portable Document Format">PDF</acronym> and document viewer</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Paulstretch</strong> Ambient sound generation via stretched sound recordings, extreme stretch lenghts and many controls over the sound</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>QDVDauthor</strong> DVD menu authoring</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Qsynth</strong> Allows use of SoundFont files</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Qsampler</strong> Allows use of sfz and gigasampler sample sets</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Qtractor</strong> Fast, lightweight DAW</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>REAPER</strong> Powerful Windows-based DAW, officially supported under Wine</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Recorditnow</strong> Record your desktop to a video file</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Rakarrack</strong> JACK Guitar FX processor</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Rosegarden</strong> MIDI sequencer with integrated notation</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>samplv1</strong> Simple sampler available as LV2 plugin and JACK app</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>scribus</strong> Professional layout and publishing software</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>smplayer</strong> Excellent audio and video playback app</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Soundkonverter</strong> batch audio file conversion</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Sooperlooper</strong> live looping sampler</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>sunvox</strong> Advanced module tracker with integrated synths, samplers and JACK support</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Swami</strong> SoundFont editor</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>synfig</strong> Powerful 2D vector animation software</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>TAL-Noisemaker</strong> Superb sounding, fully automatable softsynth plugin</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>VLC</strong> The famous VLC media player</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>VMPK</strong> Virtual MIDI Piano Keyboard</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Wine</strong> Wine allows most <acronym title="Microsoft">MS</acronym> Windows software to run under GNU/Linux</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>XCFA</strong> Another sound conversion tool with more options than soundkonverter</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>XJadeo</strong> X JACK video monitor plays video in sync with a external time source (eg Ardour)</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Zynaddsubfx</strong> JACK synthesizer</div>
</li>
</ul>

</div>

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<li class="level1"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#installing_kxstudio" class="toc">Installing KXStudio</a></span></div>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#partitioning_options" class="toc">Partitioning options</a></span></div></li>
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#uefi_windows_8_and_secureboot" class="toc">UEFI, Windows 8 and SecureBoot</a></span></div></li>
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#multi-booting_with_uefi" class="toc">Multi-booting with UEFI</a></span></div></li>
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#advanced_partitioning_options" class="toc">Advanced partitioning options</a></span></div></li>
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#running_the_installer" class="toc">Running the installer</a></span></div></li>
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#kxstudio_welcome_setup" class="toc">KXStudio Welcome Setup</a></span></div></li>
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#multi-boot_issues_on_bios-based_machines" class="toc">Multi-boot issues on BIOS-based machines</a></span></div></li>
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#ssd_optimization" class="toc">SSD optimization</a></span></div></li></ul>
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<h1><a name="installing_kxstudio" id="installing_kxstudio">Installing KXStudio</a></h1>
<div class="level1">

<p>

There are a few important considerations you must be aware of before installing KXStudio. These include knowing what type of machine you are installing on, how its disks are to be arranged and whether or not you plan to boot any additional operating systems alongside KXStudio.
</p>

<p>
<strong>REMEMBER TO ALWAYS BACK UP</strong> all important files before you start modifying partitions or trying to install new operating systems!
</p>

</div>

<h2><a name="partitioning_options" id="partitioning_options">Partitioning options</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

Whether you are installing onto a UEFI or BIOS-based machine you will have the least trouble getting KXStudio to boot if you are able to let the KXstudio installer use your entire hard drive and automatically create the partitions for you. In any case, make sure that important files on the machine are backed up before installation in case you make a mistake during partitioning! It will also help to <a href="http://www.wikihow.com/Check-BIOS-Version" class="urlextern" title="http://www.wikihow.com/Check-BIOS-Version" rel="nofollow">know if your machine is UEFI or not before you start installing.</a>
</p>

<p>
If you want to install KXStudio onto the same drive as an existing installation of Windows <a href="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/HowtoResizeWindowsPartitions" class="urlextern" title="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/HowtoResizeWindowsPartitions" rel="nofollow">read this guide on how to resize your Windows drive</a>.
</p>

</div>

<h2><a name="uefi_windows_8_and_secureboot" id="uefi_windows_8_and_secureboot">UEFI, Windows 8 and SecureBoot</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

Many computers purchased since late 2011 use a technology called UEFI in place of the traditional BIOS to control and configure booting of operating systems. Due to UEFI being a new technology, GNU/Linux support is not yet as reliable as it is for older BIOS-based machines. In particular, Ubuntu and KXStudio cannot currently be dual-booted with Windows 8 with SecureBoot enabled without in-depth knowledge far beyond the scope of this guide. If you are hoping to dual boot Windows 8 with GNU/Linux you should look into disabling SecureBoot mode in your UEFI configuration.
</p>

</div>

<h2><a name="multi-booting_with_uefi" id="multi-booting_with_uefi">Multi-booting with UEFI</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

Those wishing to multi-boot Windows, OSX or other operating systems with KXStudio on a UEFI machine are recommended to obtain a copy of <a href="http://sourceforge.net/p/linux-secure/wiki/Home/" class="urlextern" title="http://sourceforge.net/p/linux-secure/wiki/Home/" rel="nofollow">Linux Secure Remix</a> before you attempt installing KXStudio. If, after installing KXStudio on the same UEFI machine as Windows or OSX and rebooting, you don&#039;t see a boot menu offering a choice of operating systems you should boot Linux Secure Remix and run the Boot-Repair tool which fixes most GRUB/UEFI boot configuration issues and should get your machine multi-booting properly. This tool may be included on future KXStudio DVD releases.
</p>

<p>
The Boot-Repair process is documented <a href="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/UEFI" class="urlextern" title="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/UEFI" rel="nofollow">here.</a> If Boot-Repair doesn&#039;t cure your UEFI booting woes it would be worth trying <a href="http://refit.sourceforge.net/" class="urlextern" title="http://refit.sourceforge.net/" rel="nofollow">rEFIt</a> or <a href="http://freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/gummiboot" class="urlextern" title="http://freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/gummiboot" rel="nofollow">gummiboot.</a>/
</p>

</div>

<h2><a name="advanced_partitioning_options" id="advanced_partitioning_options">Advanced partitioning options</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

By default, the main GNU/Linux system (root) uses the same partition as your user files (home). For various reasons, such as for ease of later system updates, you may want separate partitions. While ideal, this step is optional and can be skipped if you are uncomfortable with the details or want to save time.
</p>

<p>
To customize your partitions, run “GParted” from the KXStudio live session before running the KXStudio installer.

</p>
<ol>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> First, resize existing systems that you want to keep, if you have any</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> Create a new “extended” partition in the empty space</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> Within the extended partition, make a logical partition for your root (/) of at least 15GB and formatted as ext4. This will contain the <acronym title="Operating System">OS</acronym> and apps.</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> Also within the extended partition, make a small partition for swap (virtual RAM) that is at least as large as your physical RAM size and put it at the end of the drive</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> Again within the extended partition, create a logical ext4 partition for home (/home) for all your user files and preferences. Use all the remaining space or consider making a separate partition for media files</div>
</li>
</ol>
<ul>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> If your drive is large enough, you may keep extra space free to later create partitions for additional GNU/Linux systems on the same machine</div>
</li>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> To read more about partitioning, such as how to format to share files between Linux and Windows or Mac, see <a href="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/DiskSpace" class="urlextern" title="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/DiskSpace" rel="nofollow">https://help.ubuntu.com/community/DiskSpace</a></div>
</li>
</ul>

</div>

<h2><a name="running_the_installer" id="running_the_installer">Running the installer</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

The KXStudio Live DVD is based upon Ubuntu 12.04 and uses the same installation tool so you can reference the <a href="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/GraphicalInstall" class="urlextern" title="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/GraphicalInstall" rel="nofollow">official Ubuntu Install guide.</a> The only real difference is in step 7 as you will need to click the &#039;Install KXStudio&#039; icon on the desktop instead of clicking &#039;Install Ubuntu&#039; when you are ready to run the installer.
</p>

<p>
Contrary to what the Ubuntu installer seems to recommend with its network check, it is recommended that you disconnect from the internet before and whilst you install KXStudio so that updates are not fetched and the process is completed as quickly as possible. After a successful install and reboot you will be prompted to install any available updates.
</p>

<p>
If you did the advanced partitioning to separate your root and home, choose “manual” for partitioning in the installer. Mark to use your intended root partition as / and your intended home partition as /home, keeping the ext4 format for both.
</p>

</div>

<h2><a name="kxstudio_welcome_setup" id="kxstudio_welcome_setup">KXStudio Welcome Setup</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

After installing and booting KXStudio for the first time, you will see the KXStudio Welcome screen. The design and options for this are being updated for the upcoming 12.04.2 release. This manual will include links or information to help guide your choices once the form of the welcome program is set. Until then you are safe to just accept its defaults if you are unsure what its options mean.
</p>

</div>

<h2><a name="multi-boot_issues_on_bios-based_machines" id="multi-boot_issues_on_bios-based_machines">Multi-boot issues on BIOS-based machines</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

Sometimes the installer fails to detect the operating systems and/or add the correct options to the GRUB boot menu ie no option to boot into Windows. To fix a boot menu on BIOS-based machines, it is usually sufficient to run:

</p>
<pre class="code">sudo update-grub
sudo grub-install /dev/sda</pre>

<p>

Type those commands into a terminal after booting into KXStudio and then reboot to check the new updated GRUB config. These commands make GRUB scan for other installed OSes, update its configuration and then write its updated configuration to the first HD which is /dev/sda.
</p>

<p>
<a href="http://www.supergrubdisk.org/super-grub2-disk/" class="urlextern" title="http://www.supergrubdisk.org/super-grub2-disk/" rel="nofollow">SuperGrubDisk2</a> is very useful for fixing GRUB boot issues as it allows for booting Linux partitions on UEFI machines as well as legacy BIOS machines even when GRUB is missing or incorrectly configured.
</p>

<p>
Another useful tool to ease GRUB2 configuration is <a href="https://launchpad.net/grub-customizer" class="urlextern" title="https://launchpad.net/grub-customizer" rel="nofollow">GRUB Customizer.</a>
</p>

</div>

<h2><a name="ssd_optimization" id="ssd_optimization">SSD optimization</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

The KXStudio installer does not tweak the configuration of Solid State Drives for optimal performance. Follow <a href="http://www.howtogeek.com/62761/how-to-tweak-your-ssd-in-ubuntu-for-better-performance/" class="urlextern" title="http://www.howtogeek.com/62761/how-to-tweak-your-ssd-in-ubuntu-for-better-performance/" rel="nofollow">this guide to optimize the performance of your SSD drives.</a>

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<li class="level1"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#jack_configuration" class="toc">JACK Configuration</a></span></div>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#jack_driver" class="toc">JACK Driver</a></span></div></li>
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#jack_properties" class="toc">JACK Properties</a></span></div></li>
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#checking_for_errors_with_cadence-logs" class="toc">Checking for errors with cadence-logs</a></span></div></li>
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#jack_and_firewire" class="toc">JACK and FireWire</a></span></div></li>
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#rtirq_configuration" class="toc">rtirq configuration</a></span></div></li></ul>
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<h1><a name="jack_configuration" id="jack_configuration">JACK Configuration</a></h1>
<div class="level1">

<p>

Most of JACK&#039;s important configuration options are set within the Driver tab of Cadence&#039;s JACK Settings window which you can access via Configure under Cadence&#039;s main window, as shown below:
</p>

<p>
<a href="/lib/exe/detail.php?id=jack_configuration&amp;cache=cache&amp;media=cadence-jack-settings.png" class="media" title="cadence-jack-settings.png"><img src="/lib/exe/fetch.php?w=&amp;h=&amp;cache=cache&amp;media=cadence-jack-settings.png" class="media" title="JACK Settings" alt="JACK Settings" /></a>
</p>

</div>

<h2><a name="jack_driver" id="jack_driver">JACK Driver</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

The driver column to the left selects which JACK driver you wish to configure and use next time you start JACK with Cadence. Those using FireWire devices should use the FireWire driver but otherwise you should select ALSA for your JACK driver.
</p>

<p>
The top 3 drop-down options within Cadence&#039;s ALSA driver configuration are the most important as these let you select which device(s) to use for physical audio IO. If &#039;Duplex Mode&#039; is enabled then you can assign different ALSA devices to handle Input and Output individually. This could be useful, for example, if you need a mic input but wanted to have your sound output via a USB audio device that doesn&#039;t have a mic input. In this case you could use your computers ALSA device, which likely does have a mic input, as a separate input device. If Duplex Mode is not selected then the top drop-down is used to select the ALSA device to use for both audio input and output.
</p>

</div>

<h2><a name="jack_properties" id="jack_properties">JACK Properties</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

Sample Rate, Buffer Size and Periods/Buffer determine the base JACK latency. Their default values of 48000, 1024 and 2 respectively should work with most devices but a latency over 10ms is not usually considered good enough to be called realtime. Anyone interested in multitrack recording may wish to experiment with these settings to achieve the lowest, xrun-free latency their hardware will allow. It is possible to achieve 1ms latency with good hardware and the correct configuration.
</p>

<p>
<strong>Sample Rate</strong> Due to the way latency is calculated, it is recommended you use 48000 or 96000Hz for the lowest latency.
</p>

<p>
<strong>Buffer</strong> A smaller buffer gives lower latency. The lowest size most devices can handle is 64. Lower quality hardware may not handle any lower than 512.
</p>

<p>
<strong>Periods/Buffer</strong> The larger the period size, the higher the latency but the less chance of xruns. Experiment with using 2 or 3 periods/buffer.
</p>

<p>
<strong>Extra Latency</strong> To achieve the highest level of precision in overdubbing you should provide the extra latency values (in frames) which can be obtained with jack_iodelay. This process is covered in the Latency chapter.
</p>

</div>

<h2><a name="checking_for_errors_with_cadence-logs" id="checking_for_errors_with_cadence-logs">Checking for errors with cadence-logs</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

If JACK fails to start you can find out whats causing the problem by checking the Cadence logs. You can access the Cadence logs by launching it from under the &#039;Tools&#039; tab of the main Cadence window or you can run <strong>cadence-logs</strong> from a terminal.
</p>

</div>

<h2><a name="jack_and_firewire" id="jack_and_firewire">JACK and FireWire</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

kmix and alsamixer do not support FFADO. To adjust levels, enable phantom power and change other options for FireWire devices use ffado-mixer after you have started JACK with the FireWire driver. If you have trouble, running ffado-diag in a terminal may tell you more than Cadence&#039;s JACK error logs.
</p>

</div>

<h2><a name="rtirq_configuration" id="rtirq_configuration">rtirq configuration</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

This is an optional step that can help reduce latency. rtirq is a script that detects audio devices and prioritises them with the kernel according to a list specified in its configuration file. KXStudio&#039;s default rtirq configuration looks like:
</p>

<p>
RTIRQ_NAME_LIST=“firewire snd usb i8042”
</p>

<p>
Here we see FireWire devices have priority over ALSA and USB devices because its mentioned first. If you are mainly running JACK on a USB device you may wish to make usb the first item in the list by editing that line in the rtirq config file with a command such as:

</p>
<pre class="code">kdesudo kate /etc/default/rtirq</pre>

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<li class="level1"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#kxstudio_and_free_software" class="toc">KXStudio and Free Software</a></span></div>
<ul class="toc">
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#non-free_software_from_ubuntu" class="toc">Non-free software from Ubuntu</a></span></div></li>
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#specific_kxstudio_non-free_software" class="toc">Specific KXStudio non-free software</a></span></div></li>
<li class="level2"><div class="li"><span class="li"><a href="#what_if_i_want_to_avoid_non-free_software" class="toc">What if I want to avoid non-free software?</a></span></div></li></ul>
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<h1><a name="kxstudio_and_free_software" id="kxstudio_and_free_software">KXStudio and Free Software</a></h1>
<div class="level1">

<p>

Along with its Ubuntu base and the whole GNU/Linux world, KXStudio has its roots in the <a href="http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html" class="urlextern" title="http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html" rel="nofollow">Free Software</a> movement led by Richard Stallman and the GNU project. All of the custom KXStudio tools are <acronym title="Free/Libre and Open Source Software">FLOSS</acronym>, as is the vast majority of other included software.
</p>

<p>
As KXStudio&#039;s primary purpose is to make the installation of a GNU/Linux-based audio/visual workstation as easy as possible, a few non-free additions are included where they assist that goal.
</p>

</div>

<h2><a name="non-free_software_from_ubuntu" id="non-free_software_from_ubuntu">Non-free software from Ubuntu</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

KXStudio is based upon Ubuntu which includes select non-free software. The Ubuntu non-free software is listed in separate repositories marked as either “non-free”, “restricted”, or “multiverse”. See <a href="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Repositories" class="urlextern" title="https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Repositories" rel="nofollow">help.ubuntu.com/community/Repositories</a> for more information. Also, the standard Linux kernel includes some “binary blobs” — i.e. sections that have no source available (and so hamper the freedom to modify).
</p>

<p>
The main non-free software that KXStudio includes from Ubuntu is <strong>Flash Player</strong>. Many websites still, unfortunately, depend upon Adobe Flash, so Flash Player provides the smoothest user experience. Thankfully, the <acronym title="Free/Libre and Open Source Software">FLOSS</acronym> standards Webm and HTML5 are becoming increasingly popular, and there is a <acronym title="Free/Libre and Open Source Software">FLOSS</acronym> Flash-replacement called GNASH. Hopefully there will be less reason for the non-free Flash Player in the future.
</p>

<p>
Ubuntu also includes some non-free codecs for accessing proprietary file formats.
</p>

<p>
Some hardware manufacturers, particularly among wireless cards and graphics accelerators, do not make <acronym title="Free/Libre and Open Source Software">FLOSS</acronym> drivers for Linux but create proprietary <strong>non-free drivers</strong>. <acronym title="Free/Libre and Open Source Software">FLOSS</acronym> alternatives often function well enough, and KXStudio does not include proprietary drivers. However, because the proprietary drivers often provide superior performance, KXStudio includes a simple program to install them. See the separate page on <a href="/doku.php?id=video_drivers" class="wikilink1" title="video_drivers">installing non-free video drivers</a>.
</p>

</div>

<h2><a name="specific_kxstudio_non-free_software" id="specific_kxstudio_non-free_software">Specific KXStudio non-free software</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

While all KXStudio PPA listings are otherwise strictly <acronym title="Free/Libre and Open Source Software">FLOSS</acronym>, KXStudio includes non-free extras kept in a segregated repository. The packages are listed in Muon Package Manager <em>By Origin</em> under “KXStudio (Extra)”. In the software sources, the repository is “<a href="http://kxstudio.sourceforge.net/repo/" class="urlextern" title="http://kxstudio.sourceforge.net/repo/" rel="nofollow">http://kxstudio.sourceforge.net/repo/</a> precise free non-free”.
</p>

<p>
The KXStudio non-free repository includes the following:

</p>
<ul>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>LightScribe support</strong> — LightScribe is a proprietary technology that uses specially made CDs and DVDs to allow users to burn direct-to-disc labels. </div>
</li>
</ul>
<ul>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>LinuxDSP</strong> is a proprietary developer of quality Linux-native audio plugins. Most of the included plugins are limited demo versions, both proprietary and also not free of charge. The developer supports other <acronym title="Free/Libre and Open Source Software">FLOSS</acronym> projects, however, and is active in the GNU/Linux audio community.</div>
</li>
</ul>
<ul>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Loomer</strong> is another developer of cross-platform proprietary audio plugins. They have ported several of their offerings to GNU/Linux. Aspect is among the most powerful Linux-native softsynths available. All Loomer plugins come as demos until a license is purchased.</div>
</li>
</ul>
<ul>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Pianoteq</strong> is a piano instrument synthesizer with exceptionally advanced features and sound quality. The included software also runs in demo mode until a license is purchased.</div>
</li>
</ul>
<ul>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>REAPER</strong> is a Windows program that has official support to run in WINE. A fully native version for Linux is in the works although it will likely remain non-free. REAPER runs as a fully functional demo which simply reminds users to buy a modestly-priced license after a trial period. Many people coming from Mac or Windows may be familiar with REAPER and want to continue using it with KXStudio.</div>
</li>
</ul>
<ul>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>Renoise</strong> is a Linux-native “tracker” style music production program. It has a dedicated user base and offers many features. The demo is functional with the exception of song and instrument rendering.</div>
</li>
</ul>
<ul>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>SunVox</strong> is another Linux-native “tracker” style music program. It&#039;s known for being available for a wide range of platforms including Windows, Linux, Mac <acronym title="Operating System">OS</acronym> X, Windows Mobile, PalmOS, Maemo, Meego, iOS and Android. Although SunVox is proprietary, the desktop version used in KXStudio does not have any limitations.</div>
</li>
</ul>
<ul>
<li class="level1"><div class="li"> <strong>VST plugin support</strong> — The VST format is itself proprietary, but specific plugins may be either <acronym title="Free/Libre and Open Source Software">FLOSS</acronym> or proprietary. VST plugins may be either Windows-based (these function via the Free Wine software) or Linux-native. Several <acronym title="Free/Libre and Open Source Software">FLOSS</acronym> programs support VST plugins. All included VST plugins, whether <acronym title="Free/Libre and Open Source Software">FLOSS</acronym> or proprietary, are in the non-free repository. You can also download Windows VSTs from internet sources and use them within KXStudio, although this is not officially supported.</div>
</li>
</ul>

</div>

<h2><a name="what_if_i_want_to_avoid_non-free_software" id="what_if_i_want_to_avoid_non-free_software">What if I want to avoid non-free software?</a></h2>
<div class="level2">

<p>

Specific non-free software can be manually uninstalled, see the instructions for <a href="/doku.php?id=package_management" class="wikilink1" title="package_management">package management</a>. Aside from the items listed above, another way to quickly identify a good portion of installed non-free software is to install the program <em>vrms</em>, the Virtual Richard M Stallman. Running vrms will bring up a list of non-free issues on your system, although it does not catch everything.
</p>

<p>
To remove non-free software from the package listin